Consortium of Pacific Herbaria Projects

Flora of Guam

Managers: Tom A. Ranker
The Flora of Guam was first published by Benjamin C. Stone in 1970. The University of Hawaii at Manoa in collaboration with the the Micronesica, published by the University of Guam, are now pleased to provide readers with the text in electronic format. This project is a work in progress, and is expected to be completed by September 2012.

I would like to thank the following individuals for assisting in initiating and in the development of the e-flora: Dr. Chris Lobban, Editor - Micronesica, Dr. Alex Kerr, and Dr. Kathy Lofdahl.

Nomenclature and taxonomic arrangement is being updated and follows Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 8, June 2007. This scheme follows: A.P.G. [= Angiosperm Phylogeny Group] II. 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 141: 399-436. Plant names and names of higher taxonomic categories have been cross-referenced with the Plant List.

Please, contact us if you have suggestions, find errors, or identify inconsistencies.
July 2012

Flora of Samoa

Managers: Art Whistler and Tom A. Ranker
The flora of Samoa (the archipelago) comprises about 550 native species of flowering plants (Whistler, pers. research). These species fall into 95 plant families and about 300 genera. Although Samoa has the second largest native flora in tropical Polynesia (behind Hawai�i), its flora is only about one third as large as that of Fiji located about 1100 km (685 mi) to the west. The largest family of flowering plants in Samoa is the orchid family Orchidaceae, with approximately 100 species. Approximately 30% of the flowering plants of Samoa are endemic to the archipelago. Only two genera, Sarcopygme (Rubiaceae) and Solfia (Arecaceae), are endemic to the archipelago. The state of knowledge of the flora of Samoa has lagged behind that of much of the rest of Polynesia. Samoa is the largest archipelago in Polynesia that does not have a published flora. Hawai�i has a recent flora (Wagner et al. 1990), and Fiji has a recent and large, comprehensive one (Smith 1979�1996). Tonga had a flora published by Yuncker in 1959, and Niue has had two (Sykes 1979; Yuncker 1943). A flora of Samoa is long overdue but hopefully this problem will be rectified in the near future.

Flora of the Hawaiian Islands

Managers: Tom A. Ranker

Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies

Managers: Daniel D. Palmer and Tom Ranker
The Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies publication is being digitally reproduced to create a online fern flora through a gift by Dan Palmer. Palmer's publication was the first comprehensive survey of Hawaii's ferns to be published (2003) in more than 100 years. The book covers endemic, indigenous, and naturalized ferns and fern allies (including rare and endangered taxa), providing dichotomous keys, basionyms and synonyms, technical descriptions and distributions, a glossary, and statistical information. The author addresses unresolved taxonomic problems and offers suggestions for future research. He includes information from Hawaiian folklore and mythology, describes uses of ferns by native Hawaiians, and updates Hawaiian common names. More than 100 line drawings illustrate all 222 species, varieties, and forms, and some hybrids. The volume is based on extensive fieldwork, studies of herbarium collections worldwide, and consultations with pteridologists, local ecologists, and collectors. It provides the much-needed scientific basis for a new, worldwide appreciation of Hawaiian ferns and fern allies and for major efforts to protect and conserve them. This well-researched and highly readable book will be enthusiastically received by amateur and professional naturalists, fern enthusiasts, and professional botanists.

About the Author
Daniel D. Palmer, a retired dermatologist, has written several publications on Hawaiian ferns including reviews of the genera Sadleria and Cibotium and is the author or co-author of papers on other Hawaiian ferns. He has visited herbaria worldwide to examine collections of Hawaiian ferns and has assembled an extensive personal collection of specimens and reference works. He now divides his time between Hawai'i and Michigan, where he operates a tree farm.

Acknowledgements: Mahalo to Jacob Suissa, Raphael Hausenfluck-Poli, and Gianna Chesrow for assisting with data entry.

Mānoa Heritage Center

Managers: Margo Viterelli
Founded in 1996 by preservationists Sam and Mary Cooke, the Mānoa Heritage Center is a non-profit organization, whose mission is to promote the thoughtful stewardship of the natural and cultural heritage of Hawai‘i. This remarkable site consists of Kūka‘ō‘ō Heiau, a Native Hawaiian garden and Kūali‘i, a Tudor-style house, built in 1911 that is presently the Cookes' private residence. The heiau and historic home are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Plants of Palau

Managers: Ann Kitalong, Sholeh Hanser, and Tom A. Ranker
The Pacific is the largest biodiversity hotspot region on earth and is arguably the most vulnerable to extinctions. Islands have historically been exceptionally vulnerable to extinctions. In 2004 the IUCN determined that out of all known recorded extinctions from mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and molluscs; 72% were island species.

Although the abundance of endemic and rare plants with restricted distributions in the Pacific is widely acknowledged, little is known about them. Palau, at the western most edge of this region has approximately 130-135 endemic plant species confined to only 453 sq. km. Previous estimates of plant endemism rates for this region have proven to be overestimated by far (Costion & Lorence 2012). Many of these plants are rare, restricted in distribution, and/or very poorly known. Approximately 15% of these are only known from the type collections. A preliminary IUCN red-list assessment of all endemic plant species for Palau (Costion et al. 2009) found that for over 60% of them data was insufficient for establishing a red-list category.

Progress towards a complete IUCN Red Listing of endemic plants in this region is imperative, as threats to the island from development and invasive species are increasing. The lack of a complete understanding of which plant taxa are threatened, and to what degree, remains a significant barrier to effective biodiversity conservation in Micronesia's most diverse flora. This challenge was addressed in this CEPF project by targeting specific taxa for further collection and population inventory while progressing knowledge on the threatened status

Plants of Tonga Checklist

Managers: Tom A. Ranker
The Tongan archipelago is a group of 150 or more islands and islets of volcanic and coral formation. Of these, only a relatively small number are sufficiently large or topographically suitable for plantations adequate to support populations of any size. Most of the islands are arranged in three main, roughly circumscribed, areas situated in the southern, central, and northern parts of the archipelago known as the Tongatapu, Ha'apai, and Vava'u groups respectively.

The islands of these three groups are arranged in two roughly parallel lines from slightly southwest to northeast in the south Pacific Ocean between 15° and 23° south latitude and 173° and 177° west longitude. To the north, and somewhat remote from the northern Vava'u group, lie the volcanic islands of Niuafo'ou, Tafahi, and Niuatoputapu (Keppel). The islands of the eastern line are the more numerous and are of coral origin. For the most part, they are low, flat, and topographically uninteresting. The western line, extending from the extreme southern, and at present uninhabited island of 'Ata to Niuafo'ou on the north, is of volcanic origin. It includes the island of Kao in the Ha'apai group which rises to a height of about 1,000 meters, the highest of the Tongan islands. Some of the islands for example, Tofua, Fonualei, and Niuafo'ou are still volcanically active. Tongatapu, the largest of the coral islands, with an area of nearly 100 square miles, is very flat and reaches an altitude of scarcely 90 meters at its highest point. On it is located Nuku'alofa, which is the largest town in Tonga and the seat of government.

Traditional Plants Uses in Micronesia

Managers: Mark Merlin
A catalog of Micronesian plants and their uses from the main islands of the Federated States of Micronesia: Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap. Much of this information was painstakingly collected in various islands of Micronesia as fieldwork for a series of books authored by University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa Professor of Ethnobotany Dr. Mark Merlin.

UH - Community Colleges Landscapes

Managers: Tom A. Ranker
The University of Hawai'i Community Colleges includes 7 campuses and educational centers across the Hawaiian Islands.

University of Hawai`i at Manoa Arboretum

Managers: Tom A. Ranker
The University of Hawai'i at Manoa is home to more than 500 kinds of trees and plants. They intrigue campus visitors and provide students and professors with a living outdoor botanical laboratory.

Varietal Diversity on the Selection of Kava

Managers: Andrew Gerren, Orou Gauae, Noa Lincoln, and Tom A. Ranker, database manager
This study will investigate patterns of different kava varieties grown and consumed in Hawai'i and Vanuatu, to identify factors contributing to their production and consumption, and to identify major knowledge gaps. The presence of Piper methysticum within the Oceania archipelago has been well documented; however, the botanical variations of kava cultivars and their influence on selection need further investigation. The objective of this study is to develop consumer awareness of kava consumption, understand the role that local producers play in applying their knowledge to the kava growth process, and to catalog what varieties of locally grown kava would be open to the global market. Preliminary data will be compiled from photos, literature, and plant specimens found in Hawai'i and Vanuatu. Surveys, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with farmers, producers, consumers, and retailers will be conducted, as well as visits to farms, production sites, and other facilities, where participant observation and field walks will be used to assess factors influencing varietal diversity. Data will be analyzed using indices to determine varietal importance to help map out the complex nature and number of varieties. Identifying and describing the mechanisms of varietal selection will provide insight into future pathways as kava enters the global market. This study will also provide information on cultivar abundance, allowing us to see which varieties require more attention to ensure their survival. Information obtained on kava growth and consumption will be used to analyze the multidimensional concept of importance into standardized and comparable numerical scales or values.