(nat) Arabian coffee Shrubs or small trees usually 2-5 m tall, nodes ± somewhat swollen. Leaves charta-ceous to thin and coriaceous, glossy, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 7-20 cm long, (2-)3.5-7 cm wide, lateral veins 9-11 pairs, these converging at the margins to form an undulate submarginal vein, glabrous, margins entire, undulate, apex long-acuminate, ± falcate, petioles 0.8-1.5 cm long, stipules ca. (3-)5- 10 mm long, persistent. Flowers fragrant, 2-10 in dense, axillary, subsessile clusters composed of 3-flowered cymes; calyx mi-nutely toothed; corolla white, 2-2.5 cm long, glabrous, the tube ca. 1 cm long, the lobes oblong, 12-15 mm long. Fruit red, drying black to brown or olive brown, narrowly ovoid to ellipsoid, 1.2-1.6 cm long, 1-1.2 cm in diameter. [2n = 22, 44, 66, 88.] Probably native to Ethiopia, long cultivated throughout tropical regions of the world; in Hawai‘i widely cultivated and well naturalized by the mid-1800s primarily in mesic to wet, disturbed sites, usually valleys or along streambeds, often locally abundant, 30-580 m, documented from all of the main islands except Ni'ihau. According to Hillebrand (1888), it was first introduced in 1823 by a Frenchman who established a plantation in Manoa Valley, 0‘ahu, after which it was soon cultivated on all of the main islands. Neal (1965) states that the Coffee is still commercially cultivated in first coffee plants were brought to Hawai‘i Hawai‘i, especially on leeward Hawai‘i, by Don Marin in where it is sold as Kona coffee. 1813.—Plate 162.