Wagner, Warren L., Derral R. Herbst and S. H. Sohmer. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i (Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication, 2 Vol. Set). Honolulu, HI
Flora of Hawaii:
Distribution In the Hawaiian Islands, endemic to Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Hawai`i.
Habit Shrubs, lianas, or small trees up to 5 m tall.
Leaves Leaves variable, membranous to chartaceous or coriaceous, obovate, oblanceolate to elliptic, oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or sometimes suborbicular, flat or weakly concave, 2-18(-23) cm long, 0.8-8 cm wide, lateral veins spreading, moderately to strongly arcuate, ± conspicuous, not or slightly impressed, sometimes moderately so, higher order venation inconspicuous or sometimes conspicuous, upper surface glabrous, lower surface glabrous or short-hirtellous, sometimes only along veins, apex rounded, obtuse, acute, or short-acuminate, base cordate to truncate, cuneate, or attenuate, petioles 0.2-2(-3) cm long, stipules 2.5-16 mm long, adnate to petioles only at base.
Flowers Flowers in terminal, open to very open or congested, lax or stiff, paniculate inflorescences 3-25 cm long, sometimes also with short inflorescences on short, leafy, lateral branches, rarely with axillary inflorescences, short-hispidulous or glabrous, peduncles usually 4-35 mm long, elongating to 7-70 mm or more long in fruit, ± hirtellous, pedicels 1-4 mm long, elongating to 3-12 mm long in fruit, ± hirtellous; calyx lobes deltate, deltate-ovate, or linear-deltate, 0.5-2.2 mm long, erect or sometimes somewhat spreading, margins ± ciliolate; corolla purple or green on tube, the lobes yellowish green or sometimes purple-tinged, fleshy, fusiform in bud, salverform, glabrous or short-hirtellous externally, the tube 4-15 mm long, the limb gradually expanded, weakly quadrangular, the lobes linear, 2-7 mm long, apparently smaller in functionally staminate plants, each with a terminal fleshy appendage. Fruit drupaceous, dark blue to purplish black, 4-12 mm in diameter, indehiscent, persistent calyx lobes erect to slightly spreading. [2n = ca. 93*, 95*, 96*, 98*, 100*, 102-105*.]
Fruit Fruit drupaceous, dark blue to purplish black, 4-12 mm in diameter, indehiscent, persistent calyx lobes erect to slightly spreading.
Chromosomes 2n = ca. 93*, 95*, 96*, 98*, 100*, 102-105*