Wagner, Warren L., Derral R. Herbst and S. H. Sohmer. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i (Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication, 2 Vol. Set). Honolulu, HI
Flora of Hawaii:
Distribution In the Hawaiian Islands, endemic to Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Hawai`i.
Habit Leaves usually dark green on upper surface, dull to somewhat glossy, relatively thin to thick, firm-chartaceous to coriaceous, ovate to elliptic, occasionally rhombic-ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, (5-)7-20 cm long, (2.2-)3-15 cm wide, leaves of young growth up to 41 cm long and 30 cm wide, veins flat to strongly impressed, the areoles flat to conspicuously raised, the surface smooth or conspicuously papillate, smooth or scabrid to the touch, cystoliths ± conspicuous, hirsute at least along veins, sometimes sparsely or moderately so over surface, hairs usually appressed, lower surface dull white to gray or olive gray, sometimes somewhat glaucous, veins slightly to moderately raised, ± red, moderately to densely appressed hirsute or spreading short-hirtellous, areoles moderately to densely woolly pubescent, completely obscuring surface, or the center of the areole less densely woolly and appearing pitted, occasionally areoles only glaucous, margins coarsely serrate to crenate, apex acuminate to acute, base subcordate to rounded or broadly cuneate, petioles stout, (0.5-)2-8(-12) cm long, young growth up to 16 cm long, gray hirsute, the hairs spreading or appressed, stipules thin to somewhat thickened, (2.5-)4-11 mm long, 2-6 mm wide, ± 2-lobed, hirsute in lower part or only along veins, caducous or slightly persisting.
Leaves Leaves pinnately compound or some simple, usually 6.5-13 cm long including petiole, leaflets (1-)3-5(-7), ovate-lanceolate, usually 4-11 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, glabrous or glabrate, margins serrate.
Flowers Plants monoecious, with flower clusters progressively more pistillate toward apex of branches, or plants dioecious, flower clusters ca. 4-10 mm in diameter, staminate calyx 1.5-2.5 mm long, gray tomentose to hirsute or puberulent; pistillate calyx (0.8-)1-1.3 mm long, enlarging to 1.5-2.5 mm long in fruit, gray hirsute, tomentose, or puberulent in upper part, glabrate toward base.
Fruit Achenes pale brown to pale gray or yellowish brown, conical-ovoid to ovoid, rarely obovoid, 0.9-1.7 mm long, ± constricted below.