Wagner, Warren L., Derral R. Herbst and S. H. Sohmer. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i (Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication, 2 Vol. Set). Honolulu, HI
Flora of Hawaii:
Distribution In the Hawaiian Islands
Habit Small erect to prostrate shrubs to tall trees, bark usually rough and fissured, separating in thick flakes, sometimes smooth and separating in long thin strips, vegetative buds obovoid.
Leaves Leaves obovate to orbicular or sometimes elliptic, broadly ovate, or ovate, 1-8 cm long, 1-5.5 cm wide, several pairs of raised veins radiating from base, upper surface glabrous, lower surface glabrous or woolly or appressed pubescent, margins revolute to flat, apex rounded or sometimes obtuse to acute, base cuneate to cordate, petioles usually short, usually much less than 1/3 as long as blades, 1-16 mm long, 1-3 mm wide.
Flowers Flowers red, in inflorescences of 2-5 pairs of cymules, glabrous or appressed or woolly pubescent, peduncles 7-18 mm long, 1-3 mm wide, pedicels 2-8 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, bracts broadly ovate to suborbicular, 5-10 mm long, 3-5 mm wide; hypanthium 3-7 mm high, 3-8 mm wide; sepals rounded to triangular, 1.5-4 mm long, 1.5-3 mm wide; petals obovate to orbicular, 2.5-5 mm long, 2-4.5 mm wide; stamens 1-3 cm long; style 1.3-3 cm long. Fruiting hypanthium 3-8 mm long and wide, pubescent or glabrous.